~ BIBLIOGRAPHY ~
Writings about Our Methods, Our Projects & Our
2000 Virtual Reality in Archaeology, ArcheoPress, Oxford (British Archaeological Reports, International Series #843; book and CD-ROM). ISBN 1 84171 047 4
[in-depth review of the current state of Virtual Archaeology--the theories, the goals, the methods, and the projects; from special sessions on the subject at the Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology conference in Barcelona, Spain, 1998]Bawaya, Michael
2010 "Virtual Archaeologists Recreate Parts of Ancient Worlds," Science vol.327.5962:140-41. January 8 (available online via subscription at: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/327/5962/140).
2006 "Digital Digs," Nature vol.440.7088:1106-07. April 27.
[special issue of this award-winning children's periodical devoted entirely to exploring the ancient Assyrians--who were they, how did they live, how did they bury their royalty, what role did women play in Assyrian life, how to play Assyrian games, and what was the legacy of their great empire; copiously illustrated with photographs and renderings supplied by Learning Sites, from a variety of our Assyrian projects]
2007 "Virtual Heritage Allows Time Travel," story released by Associated Press to newspapers nationally in the United States on May 26 and 27, 2007.
[article on new visualization and display technologies for cultural heritage that includes Learning Sites material as an example]
Craig, Alan B., William R. Sherman, and Jeffrey D. Will
2009 Developing Virtual Reality Applications: Foundations of Effective Design, Burlington MA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.
Mary K., James C. Wright, and
Donald H. Sanders
[discussion of Learning SitesTM innovative electronic excvation report which will publish the complete results of the Bryn Mawr College work at Tsoungiza, including all photographs, drawings, notebook pages, analyses, and database records accessed through virtual reality as the visual index and a Java-based search engine for the database and its links to the virtual re-creations of the trenches and reconstructions of buildings and artifacts]Davis, Ben
1997 "The Future of the Past," Scientific American, August. http://www.sciam.com/0897issue/0897review1.html
[an example of the new field of digitial archaeology; a review of Learning Sites collaboration with the University at Buffalo Department of Classics, the Virtual Reality Laboratory in the UB School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, the UB Center for Computational Research, and the New York State Center for Engineering Design and Industrial Innovation to re-create the ancient Assyrian palace of King Ashur-nasir-pal II at Nimrud using advanced computer graphics techniques]
[review of Learning Sites collaboration with the University at Buffalo Department of Classics, the Virtual Reality Laboratory in the UB School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, the UB Center for Computational Research, and the New York State Center for Engineering Design and Industrial Innovation to create new educational and research tools using virtual reconstructions of ancient monuments; the new tools will have intelligent agents acting as virtual tour guides and be available on very high-end systems and also on small portable units; examples from the Northwest Palace of Ashur-nasir-pal II, Nimrud]Etherington, Rose
2013  "Brain Scanners," PrintShift: how 3D printing is changing everything (a print-on-demand publication by Dezeen with Blurb), vol. 1, #1, pp.50-51. also at http://www.dezeen.com/printshift
Fernie, Kate and Julian D. Richards, eds.
[a guide to good practice published by the Arts and Humanities Data Service, London, that includes as its case studies two virtual ancient worlds created by Learning Sites]
2002 "The Ancient Temple on the Acropolis at Athens," American Journal of Archaeology, vol.106, #1, pp.11-35.
[a new analysis of the evidence leads to the conclusion that the Archaic temple of Athena, set afire by the Persian sack of Athens, was neither destroyed in the assault nor taken down at a later date, but remained standing into the Roman period, and possibly well beyond; with several images from Learning Sites' virtual reality re-creation of part of the Acropolis with a hypothetical digital reconstruction of the Archaic temple in ruins.]
2012 "Harvard's 3D-Printing Archaeologists Fix Ancient Artifacts," Wired.com, Dec. 10. http://www.wired.com/design/2012/12/harvard-3d-printing-archaelogy/
[detailed guide to the most current methods and techniques of the archaeological profession for fieldwork, analysis, and publication using new computer and multimedia technologies; with numerous examples from Learning Sites regarding our use of the Internet, virtual reality, and interactive educational materials]1997 "Viaggio nel Tempo," Virtual: il mensile dell'era digitale, vol. 38, January, p.64-68.
for other works by Forte, see also: Barcelo, Forte, and Sanders
[review of the Buhen Project, the beginnings of Learning Sites, and the advantages of using of virtual reality for cultural heritage projects]1996 "The Fortress of Buhen and the Learning Sites Project," VR News vol. 5, #1, Jan/Feb., p.26.
for other works by Gay, see also: Sanders and Gay
1998 Virtual Reality: Computers Mimic the Physical World. Facts on File: New York.
1999 "Pyramid Report: Reliving the Past," CAD Systems, April, v.17, #3, p.18. http://www.cadsystems.com/ci/9904f06.html
[review of how CAD technology, normally used for contemporary architecture, is being used by Learning Sites for accurately studying the past; with discussion of and illustrations from our work on Gebel Barkal and the Nothwest Palace at Nimrud]Indian Architect & Builder magazine
1999 v.12, p.152 and CD.
[the CD accompanying this issue highlights the work of Learning Sites, including many of our recent projects with interactive virtual reality demos, high-resolution renderings, and text describing our goals and methods]
[introduction to the field of computer graphics, from how to create them to how they are used in medicine, movies, and cultural heritage preservation; images from Learning Sites projects as examples of virtual reality used for reconstructions of historical sites for education]Kim, Youngseok; Thenkurussi Kesavadas; and Samuel M. Paley
forthcoming 2006 "The Virtual Site Museum: a multipurpose, authoritative, and functional virtual heritage resource," PRESENCE (Special Issue on Virtual Heritage), online at MIT Press (http://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?ttype=4&tid=37).
[The Virtual Site Museum is an interactive virtual reality interface for various purposes including archaeological research, education, and public demonstration. Its virtual environment contains precise, authoritative and integrated archaeological and historical files culled from published and unpublished excavation records and the various art museums, which preserve artifacts from the real archaeological site. Running in real-time, it provides full-body immersion, 3D ancient figure animation, and virtual artifacts interface and corresponding user-oriented interactions in a functional virtual environment. The first of the sites to be documented in the Virtual Site Museum is the Northwest Palace of King Ashurnasirpal II (883~859 BC), located
in northeastern Iraq, an Assyrian world heritage archaeological site, whose original virtual reality model was developed by Learning Sites and adapted from previously generated PC versions into immersive UNIX platforms. The authors also explain their experiences and achievements in archaeological research and classroom accessibility.]
for other works by Kesavadas, see also: Kim, Youngseok; T. Kesavadas; Samuel M. Paley; and Donald H. Sanders
for other works by Paley, see also: Kim, Youngseok; T. Kesavadas; Samuel M. Paley; and Donald H. Sanders; Paley, Samuel M. and Donald H. Sanders
Kim, Youngseok; T. Kesavadas; Samuel M. Paley; and Donald H. Sanders
2001 "Real-time Animation of King Ashur-nasir-pal II (883-859 BC) in the Virtual Recreated Northwest Palace, pp.128-136 in Hal Thwaites and Lon Addison, eds., Enhanced Realities: augmented and unplugged -- Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia, 25-27 October, 2001, IEEE Computer Society: Los Alamitos, California.
[digital modeling of an historically accurate ancient character and the simulation of 3D human--avatar--and cloth movement in a real-time, complex virtual re-creation of the Northwest Palace of Nimrud, Assyria]Kornfeld, Geoffrey & Donald H. Sanders
1999 "Layers upon Layers: using Adobe® Photoshop® to create period plans," CSA Newsletter, v.12, #2, pp.6-11. http://www.archcomp.org/web1/Fall99/nlf9904.html
2003 "Arqueologia Virtual: mundos resucitados," Muy Especial, #60, winter, pp.90-95.
[review of some current projects in virtual archaeology, including those by Learning Sites, and brief overview of the process of creating a virtual reconstruction]
1996 "Enhancing Instruction through Virtual Reality," Technology and Education: catalyst for educational change, v.1, pp. 31-33, papers from the 13th International conference on Technology and Education, ICTE: Grand Prairie, Texas.
2002 "Virtually Rebuilt, a Ruin Yields Secrets," New York Times, Circuits section, May 2, p.G6 (vol. 151, #52,106). Also online at: http://www.nytimes.com/pages/technology/circuits/index.html
[discussion about how virtual reality computer technologies are providing new insight into ancient sites and challenging traditional beliefs; featuring images from and comments about Learning Sites' Northwest Palace, Nimrud, project]Madov, Natasha
2002 "Como era há 2000 anos," Veja, May 15, #1751, pp.67-68. Also online at: http://www2.uol.com.br/veja/idade/exclusivo/150502/p_067.html
[review of the benefits of virtual archaeology, generating new insight into the past not possible with traditional visualization methods; featuring the Learning Sites' Northwest Palace of Ashur-nasir-pal II, Nimrud, project as an example]Mahoney, Diana Phillips
1998 "Time Travels," Computer Graphics World, April, pp.81-82.
for other Computer Graphics World articles about Learning Sites, see also: Moltenbrey
1998 "Learning Sites Provides Virtual Visits to Lost Worlds," Berkshire Trade & Commerce Monthly, v.1.10:10-11.
1997 "The Future of History: virtual archaeology," The Daily Telegraph, October 14, pp.8-9.
2008 "Making archaeology, imagining architecture: Patterns of production and diffusion of two and three dimensional architectural drawings in Near Eastern archaeology," in Magistrat der Stadt Wien, MA 7 - Kultur, Referat Stadtarchäologie, ed., Workshop 12 Archäologie und Computer 2007: Kulturelles Erbe und Neue Technologien, 5 - 7. November 2007.
2007 "From drawing to vision: the use of Mesopotamian architecture through the construction of its image," in Magistrat der Stadt Wien, MA 7 - Kultur, Referat Stadtarchäologie, ed., Workshop 11 Archäologie und Computer 2006: Kulturelles Erbe und Neue Technologien, 18. - 20. Oktober 2006.
[brief encapsulation of the work Learning Sites has been doing in the field of virtual archaeology over the past decade, with examples of recent projects]
2001 "Preserving the Past," Computer Graphics World, September, vol.24, #9, pp.24-30.
[review of virtual cultural heritage, the new discipline focusing on using digital technologies, especially virtual reality, to help preserve the past; Learning Sites projects and goals are discussed among some of the leading proponents of the discipline; includes images from two of our recent projects]Mullenneaux, Lisa
1999 "Digital Digs," Innovating, v.7, #4, pp.29-36.
[interview with Donald H. Sanders, founder of Learning Sites, Inc., about the history of the company and the future of virtual archaeology; published in the quarterly journal of the Innovation Group of The Rensselaerville Institute]Niccolucci, Franco, editor
2002 Virtual Archaeology; proceedings of the VAST Euroconference, Arezzo, 24-25 November, 2000, ArcheoPress: Oxford (British Archaeological Reports, International Series #1075).
[proceedings of an international conference on virtual archaeology held in Arezzo, Italy, covering topics related to the use of interactive 3D computer models, databases, GIS applications, and other virtual-reality-based visualizations to the study of the past; Donald H. Sanders was an invited speaker]Novitski, B. J.
1998 Rendering Real and Imagined Buildings: the art of computer modeling, from the Palace of Kublai Khan to Le Corbusier's Villas, Rockport Publishers: Gloucester MA.
[exploring the rise of computer graphics visualizations to study and teach about buildings that have no intention of being built or that no longer exist; examples from architecture and archaeology, including a highly illustrated chapter on Learning Sites Vari House and discussion of Learning Sites Palace of Ashur-nasir-pal project]
Paley, Samuel M.
2008 "Creating a Virtual Reality Model of the North-West Palace," pp.195-208 in J. E. Curtis, H. McCall, D. Collon, and L. al-Gailani Werr, eds., New Light on Nimrud: proceedings of the Nimrud conference 11th-13th March 2002, the British Institute for the Study of Iraq in association with the British Museum: London.
2010 "The Northwest Palace in the Digital Age," pp.215-36 in 7Ada Cohen and Steven E. Kangas, eds., Assyrian Reliefs from the Palace of Ashurnasirpal II: a cultural biography, Hood Museum of Art: Hanover, NH & University Press of New England: Lebanon, NH.
2004 "The citadel
of Nimrud, Iraq: a virtual reality interactive model as a resource for
world heritage preservation," pp.541-43 and CD-ROM in Magistrat der
Stadt Wien - Referat Kulturelles Erbe - Stadtarchæologie Wien,
eds., Enter the Past: the e-way into
the four dimensions of cultural heritage, CAA2003, proceedings from the
31st conference, Vienna, Austria, April 2003, ArcheoPress:
Oxford (British Archaeological Reports, International Series #1227).
[text abstract and fully interactive CD-ROM discussion about the Learning Sites project to build a comprehensive VR-based research resource incorporating all the excavation evidence from the citadel at Nimrud that will be available to students, scholars, and other interested groups through a PC version and a high-end immersive version for distance learning across Internet2; the digital documentation and virtual reality model can then be used as a benchmark from which to gauge long-term preservation at this World Heritage site]
for other works by Sanders, see also: Barcelo, Forte, and Sanders; Dabney, Wright, and Sanders; Jacobson and Sanders; Kornfeld and Sanders; Sanders
1997 The Interactive Book: a guide to the interactive revolution. Macmillan Technical Publishing: Indianapolis.
2006 "Przespaceruj sie po palacu faraonów," Dziennik #17:May 9, p.27.
2012 "An Ancient Statue, Re-Created, Harvard Gazette, Dec. 4. http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2012/12/an-ancient-statue-re-created/
[a review of Learning Sites' work with the University at Buffalo to create an interactive digital re-creation and publication of the Northwest Palace of Ashur-nasir-pal II at Nimrud, Assyria]
2016 "The Present and Future of Virtual Heritage," in M. G. Micale & D. Nadali, eds. How Do We Want the Past to Be? On Methods and Instruments of Visualizing Ancient Reality. Piscataway NJ: Gorgias Press. https://www.gorgiaspress.com/bookshop/p-60126-how-do-we-want-the-past-to-be-bredited-by-maria-gabriella-micale-davide-nadalibrregenerating-practices-in-archaeology-and-heritage-1.aspx
2015 "Advances in Virtual Heritage: conditions and caveats," pp.643-46 in Gabriele Guidi, Roberto Scopigno, Juan Carlos Torres, Holger Graf, Fabio Remondino, Pere Brunet, Juan Barceló, Luciana Duranti, and Susan Hazan. eds. Proceedings of the 2015 Digital Heritage International Congress, Granada, Spain. 2 vols. published by IEEE. Some material also available online: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/tocresult.jsp?isnumber=7413813
2015 "Virtual Tour of the Palace of Nineveh: using modern technology to preserve antiquities in danger," pp.41-59 in Eyal Meiron, Editor, City of David: studies of ancient Jerusalem. The 16th Annual Conference, Jerusalem: Megalim: City of David Institute for Jerusalem Studies.
2014 "Virtual Heritage: Researching and Visualizing the Past in 3D," Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology and Heritage Studies v.2.1:30-47.
2013 "Gurob Ship-Cart Model in Virtual Reality," pp.207-18 in Shelley Wachsmann, The Gurob Ship-Cart Model and Its Mediterranean Context, College Station, TX: Texas A&M Press.
2012 "A Brief History of Virtual Heritage," pp.95-103 in Jack Green, Emily Teeter, and Jack Larson, eds., Picturing the Past: imaging and imagining the ancient Middle East, Oriental Institute Publications #34, Chicago: Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.
2012 "More than Pretty Pictures of the Past: an American perspective on virtual heritage," in Anna Bentkowska-Kafel and Hugh Denard, eds., Paradata and Transparency in Virtual Heritage, Farnham, UK: Ashgate.
2011 "Enabling Archaeological Hypothesis Testing in Real Time using the REVEAL Documentation and Display System,” Virtual Archaeology Review 2.4:89-94.
2011 "Virtual Reconstruction of Maritime Sites and Artifacts," pp.305-26 in Alexis Catsambis, Ben Ford and Donny L. Hamilton, eds., The Oxford Hanbook of Maritime Archaeology, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2008 "Why Do Virtual Heritage?" pp.427-436 in Jeffrey T. Clark and Emily M. Hagemeister, eds., Digital Discovery: exploring new frontiers in human heritage (proceedings from the 34th Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology conference, Fargo, ND, USA, April 2006), Budapest: Archaeolingua.
2008 "Why Do Virtual Heritage? Case studies from the portfolio of a long-time practitioner," Archaeology Magazine online at: http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/virtualheritage/
That: just how do they make computer pictures?" DIG 7.6: 28-31.
[how Learning Sites creates virtual heritage worlds, using the Vari House, Greece, as an example; one of several articles on ancient Greece and sports in this magazine aimed at middle and high school kids]
2002 "Virtual Archaeology and Museums: where are the exhibits?" pp.187-194 in Franco Niccolucci, ed., Virtual Archaeology; proceedings of the VAST Euroconference, Arezzo, 24-25 November, 2000, ArcheoPress, Oxford (British Archaeological Reports, International Series #1075).
[discussing the reasons why museums with collections of art, architecture, and archaeological artifacts seem reluctant to install VR-based exhibit displays despite their many advantages for the museum and the visiting public; solutions to each perceived problem is presented]2002 "3D Computer Models Help Archaeologists Understand the Past," Newsletter of the Archaeological Institute of America, Western Massachusetts Society, vol. 15, #2, pp.1-2, 4, 6-8.
[description of how new interactive 3D computer graphics are changing the way archaeologists study, publish, and teach about their excavated evidence; with images and descriptions of various Learning Sites projects.]
[the creation of virtual worlds based on our cultural heritage is an endeavor that although no longer in its infacy is still struggling to generate worthy content; as drawing and then photography were adopted to document historical places, objects, and cultures, so today virtual heritage products are beginning to serve those functions; but is VR content really taking advantage of the digital medium; who is creating the content; who is the audience; and are the creators and the audiences working together in fruitful ways?]
[how software once used primarily by architects, construction professionals, and graphic artists has found alternative applications by archaeologists trying to understand and visualize the ancient monuments; with examples from Learning Sites' projects]2000 "Author! Author?," pp.11-19 in Mary S. Carroll, ed., Delivering Archeological Information Electronically: papers from a symposium presented at the 64th annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, March 25, 1999, National Center for Preservation Technology and Training, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior (PTTPublication #2000-02).
[in an increasingly electronic world, archeological data are appearing in new types of publications and are finding new avenues for dissemination; the definitions of author, publisher, and content creator have become blurred, and entities other than the original excavation team are playing important roles; new collaborations are required between the excavators and the digital designer and publisher to produce text, graphics and organizational layouts; the resulting new formats and presentations are so different from traditional print-based publishing that new techniques must emerge for crediting authors and illustrators, for peer review, and for bibliographic citations; some of the changes that digital media bring to the process of archeological publishing are discussed]2000 "CAD, Virtual Reality, and Cultural Heritage Preservation," TIES Magazine, Jan/Feb., pp.6-10.
[a review of the company, the software we use to construct our 3D models, the new insight into the past that interactive computer models provide, some recent projects, and our view of a digital archaeology and virtual-reality-based education of the future]1999 "Virtual Worlds for Archaeological Research and Education," in L. Dingwall, S. Exon, V. Gaffney, S. Laflin, and M. van Leusen, Archaeology in the Age of the Internet - CAA97; Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 25th Anniversary Conference. University of Birmingham. April 1997, British Archaeological Reports #S750, Archaeopress: Oxford.
[a brief history of virtual reality; how virtual reality has been used by archaeologists; how virtual reality can be better integrated into archaeological excavation, data analysis, publication, teaching, and site preservation; with examples from current Learning Sites projects]1997 "Archaeological Virtual Worlds for Public Education," Computers in the Social Sciences Journal, v.5 #3. http://www.webcom.com/journal/sanders.html.
1997 "Exploring the Past" HyperNexus v.7 #3, pp.29-31.
for other works by Gay, see also: Gay
2000 "Virtuelle Archäologie," P.M. Perspektive Archäologie, April, pp:54-57.
[special issue devoted to archaeology, reviewing new excavations, new analyses, and new techniques for understanding and visualizing "lost" or destroyed ancient buildings and sites; article discusses examples from several projects using virtual reality, including those by Learning Sites]
Soltysiak, Arkadiusz &
1999 "Reliving the Past: Archaeological Sites Brought to Life Through CAD and Virtual Reality," v.26, #7:24-28.
[how Learning Sites uses CAD and virtual reality technology to create educational packages; they have a high-degree of accuracy and integrate abundant teaching aids; our educational project based on data from the Northwest Palace of Ashur-nasir-pal II, Nimrud, is featured]Townes, John
2016 "Lost & Found: Williamstown-based firm recognized for pioneering work in virtual heritage," Berkshire Trade & Commerce Monthly January, v.19 #9:front page, 10-11 (with numerous illustrations).
[this year's program of events focused on advanced multimedia technologies as applied to cultural heritage, including new methds for assessing and enjoying our cultural heritage and looking for ways to use these methods for education; display of several Learning Sites projects; description, objectives, and innovations of our Northwest Palace of Ashur-nasir-pal II, Nimrud, project is featured in the catalogue]Wheatley, Abigail & Struan Reid
2004 The Usborne Introduction to Archaeology, Usborne Publishing: London.
[a lushly illustrated, thorough, young adult education resource covering a full range of topics relating to archaeology and history around the world; a unique feature is the links provided to Internet sites with related information for further information; includes several visualizations provided by Learning Sites to supplement discussions about various archaeological sites and periods]
Wilkinson, Richard H.
2000 The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson: London.
[a copiously illustrated encyclopedic review of ancient Egyptian temples, covering such topics as temple origins, construction techniques, the various spaces of the temple, the religious functions of temples, and examples of the major buildings all along the Nile from the Delta to Nubia; included in the discussion of the Nubian site of Gebel Barkal, are renderings from Learning Sites' 3D model of the site]Youngblut, Christine
1998 Educational Uses of Virtual Reality Technology. Institute for Defense Analysis: Alexandria, VA (IDA Document D-2128). http://www.hitl.washington.edu/scivw/youngblut-edvr/D2128.pdf